Ryesgade 30 A-C

Ryesgade

2200

Copenhagen (Nørrebro), Dänemark

Architekt

Krydsrum Architects and Rönby.dk (Leif Rönby)
na
leif@ronby.dk
+45 6160 0699

Besitzer

Drost Fonden
Nørre Voldgade 88, 1358 Copenhagen
+45 3313 8580

Ansprechpartner

Jørgen Rose
Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark
jro@build.aau.dk
+45 9940 2226

Other Information

Related publications
Reports in Danish
Facade of Ryesgade 30 (Source: Dorthe Krogh)
This typical residential building from the end of the 19th century, was outdated and in need for renovation. The indoor climate was poor and the energy consumption quite high. After a renovation that included new windows, thermal insulation on walls and ceiling, improved air-tightness, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery, and photovoltaic, the building achieved a 63% reduction in energy demand.
Energieeffizienz
56 kWh/m2.y

Klimazone Cfb

Höhe über dem Meer 50 m ü.d.M.

Heizgradtage 2906

Kühlgradtage 0

Unterschutzstellung denkmalgeschützt

Ensembleschutz:
Nein

Stufe der Unterschutzstellung:
SAVE lvl 4 - Facade can not be changed

Baualter 1850-1899

Letzte Sanierung:
2011

Vorhergehende Sanierungen:
0

Gebäudenutzung Residential (urban)

zusätzliche Nutzung:
Wholesale & Retail

Gebäudebelegung:
Permanently occupied

Anzahl der Bewohner/Nutzer:
60

Gebäudefläche Nettogeschossfläche [m²]: 2760,0

Gebäudetyp:
Tenement (apartments)

Anzahl der Stockwerke:
8

Keller ja/nein:
Ja

Anzahl der beheizten Stockwerke:
6

Bruttogeschossfläche [m²]:
3680,0

Thermische Gebäudehülle [m²]:
1260,0

Volumen [m³]:
8280,0

NGF Berechnungsmethode:
Danish Building Regulations

Bauart
Brick masonry wall

Außen:
Exposed brickwork

Innen:
Plastered (on substructure)

Dach:
Pitched roof

+ MEHR - WENIGER
Facade of Ryesgade 30 (Source: Dorthe Krogh)
Facade of Ryesgade 30 (Source: Dorthe Krogh)
Facade of Ryesgade 30 (Source: “Erfaringer fra prøvelejlighed Ryesgade 30C 1tv.”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2011.)
Facade of Ryesgade 30 (Source: “Erfaringer fra prøvelejlighed Ryesgade 30C 1tv.”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2011.)
Backyard of Ryesgade 30 (Source: “Bygningsfornyelse Ryesgade 30 - Totalrenovering med energi- og indeklimaoptimering + nye tagboliger”, Leif Rönby.)
Backyard of Ryesgade 30 (Source: “Bygningsfornyelse Ryesgade 30 - Totalrenovering med energi- og indeklimaoptimering + nye tagboliger”, Leif Rönby.)
Roof apartments (Source: Carsten Ingemann)
Roof apartments (Source: Carsten Ingemann)
Café at ground floor (Source: “Bygningsfornyelse Ryesgade 30 - Totalrenovering med energi- og indeklimaoptimering + nye tagboliger”, Leif Rönby.)
Café at ground floor (Source: “Bygningsfornyelse Ryesgade 30 - Totalrenovering med energi- og indeklimaoptimering + nye tagboliger”, Leif Rönby.)
Floor plan of Ryesgade 30 A, B and C. (Source: ”Resultater og Erfaringer fra Energirenovering af Ryesgade 30”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2014.)
Floor plan of Ryesgade 30 A, B and C. (Source: ”Resultater og Erfaringer fra Energirenovering af Ryesgade 30”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2014.)
Example showing the horizontal cornices and strips of the building. This picture was taken after the renovation when the new roof apartments had been added. (Source: Carsten Ingemann)
Example showing the horizontal cornices and strips of the building. This picture was taken after the renovation when the new roof apartments had been added. (Source: Carsten Ingemann)
Ryesgade 30. Facade before renovation (Source: “Erfaringer fra prøvelejlighed Ryesgade 30C 1tv.”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2011.).
Ryesgade 30. Facade before renovation (Source: “Erfaringer fra prøvelejlighed Ryesgade 30C 1tv.”, DTU.BYG, Technical University of Denmark, 2011.).

RENOVIERUNGS-PROZESS

Architektur

BESCHREIBUNG

The Ryesgade 30 property on Indre Nørrebro is a typical Copenhagen property from 1896 built for habitation. It is built in red and yellow bricks in six floors plus unheated basement and attic floors. The built-up area was 460 m² and the total heated area was 2760 m² divided into three entrances, 30A, 30B and 30C with 12, 10 and 10 apartments respectively and it has commercial premises on the ground floor. The building has a conservation value equivalent of class 4 in the SAVE classification system due to the time-typical but worn, facade with horizontal cornices and strips.
Städtebaulicher Kontext
Inner Nørrebro is a city district in Copenhagen. It covers an area of 1.72 km², has a population of 31,046 and a population density of 18,057 per km², making it the second most densely populated district in Copenhagen (taken from Wikipedia).

DENKMALWERT

ERHALTENSWERTE ELEMENTE
The facade of the building is worthy of preservation and cannot be altered according to the classification.
Denkmalwert und wie er bestimmt wurde
The building has a conservation value equivalent of class 4 in the SAVE classification system due to the time-typical but worn, facade with horizontal cornices and strips. SAVE is a compilation of "Survey of Architectural Values in the Environment" (= Mapping architectural values in the environment). The method is based on an assessment of five different conditions of a building: Architectural value Cultural-historical value Environmental value Originality Condition Each of these conditions is rated on a scale of 1-9 and summed up to a total conservation value for the building. The assessment of the conservation value is based on an overall impression of the quality and condition of the building. As a general rule, however, the architectural and cultural-historical value will weigh most. Grades 1-3 are considered a high value, 4-6 for average value and 7-9 for low value. The windows are not protected and have already been improved once by adding a layer of glass to the inside. It is however a requirement that new windows should resemble the old ones and therefore four different solutions were considered: 1. Renovate existing windows 1 + 2 layers of glass (inner part opens inward) 2. Renovate existing windows 1 + 1 layers of glass (inner part opens inward) 3 . Renovate existing windows 1 + 1 layers of glass (inner part coupled to outer part) 4. New windows 1 + 2 layers of glass (inner part coupled to outer part) Solution 4 (new windows) was chosen, since this was both the cheapest and the next best solution regarding energy. There are no heritage restrictions regarding the rest of the building, however the municipality required that roof terraces and PV-panels should not be visible from the street below.

Erhaltungszustand

Erhaltungszustand der Gebäudehülle
Before the renovation, the building had become outdated and from the toilet/bathrooms and kitchens there was originally natural ventilation, but in most apartments the ducts were either blocked or did not work. All except one apartment had a toilet, some had a bathroom, and some had a shower in a separate room or the kitchen. The load-bearing structure consists of wooden beams and solid wall. The thickness of the facade masonry varies from 350-710mm (1½-3 stone). There was no insulation in the wall and the windows were old 1-pane ineffective windows, though some wndows had been fitted with an extra layer of glass on the inside to improve energy characteristics and remove draughts.
Haustechnische Anlagen vor Sanierung
The building is heated with district heating and fresh air was generally provided by natural ventilation. Toilets/bathrooms and kitchens originally had ventilation shafts (relying on the chimney effect) but most of these had been blocked or simply did not work and hence fresh air was supplied through leaks in the building envelope and open windows.

Ziel der Sanierung

Renovation + Extension
Before the renovation, the building had become outdated and from the toilet/bathrooms and kitchens there was originally natural ventilation, but in most apartments the ducts were either blocked or did not work. All except one apartment had a toilet, some had a bathroom, and some had a shower in a separate room or the kitchen. Generally the indoor climate of the building was poor during cold months, e.g. condensation would occur on the inside of windows (see windows section) and draughts were difficult to avoid. The load-bearing structure consists of wooden beams and solid wall. The thickness of the facade masonry varies from 350-710mm (1½-3 stone). There was no insulation in the wall and the windows were old 1-pane ineffective windows. Overall the indoor climate was poor and the energy consumption quite high, and therefore the aim of the retrofit was to improve indoor climate and reduce energy consumption while at the same time improving the apartment facilities such as baths and kitchens. The property was therefore both renovated and modernized in the urban renewal project. The following improvements were made. General improvements: New larger kitchens (kitchen stairwells were included to increase area), New bathrooms, Renovation of facades, basement and stairwells, Replacement of all plumbing (except parts of the heating system), Attractive penthouse apartments with individual roof terraces. Energy improvements: New energy-efficient windows similar to the original ones, Internal insulation with compact insulation, 3 different solutions for mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (Entrance A: Traditional central ventilation, Entrance B: Central demand-controlled ventilation, Entrance C: Decentralized ventilation systems in the apartments), Photovoltaics, Exterior insulation of gable, Insulation under basement ceiling. Indoor climate improvements: Higher degree of air tightness of the building envelope, improvement of windows and ventilation with heat recovery.
Gewonnen Erkenntnisse / besondere Erfahrungen
This project involved a series of tests regarding the internal insulation (measurements of temperatures, humidity etc.), different solutions for windows (replace or repair?) and tested three different mechanical ventilation systems (one for each stairway). These detailed analysis have given a lot of insight into the possibilities and restrictions regarding this particular type of building, which can be used in future projects.
Beteiligte Akteure
Öffentliche Hand
Municipality of Copenhagen
Njalsgade 13, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
NA@NA.NA
Tel.+45 3366 3366
Architekt
Krydsrum Architects and Rönby.dk (Leif Rönby)
na
leif@ronby.dk
Tel.+45 6160 0699
Energieberater
Ekolab
Vestergade 48 H 2. tv., 8000 C Aarhus, Denmark
ekolab@ekolab.dk
Tel.+45 8613 2016
Andere
Falkon Rådgivende Ingeniører
C. F. Richs vej 107, 4. sal, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
info@falkon.dk
Tel.+45 3536 4500
Andere
Consultant to the building owner: Advokaterne Arup & Hvidt
Nørre Voldgade 88
ahlaw@aruphvidt.dk
Tel.+45 3313 8580
Eingesetzte Software/Berechnungstools
Folgte die Sanierung einer spezifischen Methode? Nein
Energiebilanz Yes
Hygrothermische Bewertung Yes
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) None
Anderes None

SANIERUNGS-LÖSUNGEN

Außenwände

Brick wall - facades

Brick wall - facades

The walls are massive brick walls ranging from 1½ stone (350 mm) to 3 stone (710 mm) in thickness with the widest walls at the ground floor. The parapets have 1 stone (235 mm) thickness. The mean U-value before renovation was 1.40 W/m2K. The facade walls were insulated on the inside with 40 mm Aerorock (a mix of rock wool and aerogel with a thermal transmittance of 0.019 W/mK) for apartments in stairwell A and B and 40 mm Kingspan (phenolic foam) insulation (with a thermal transmittance of 0.020 W/mK) for apartments in stairwell C. In both cases the finish is gypsum boards. The U-value after renovation was approx. 0.4 W/m2K. The gable wall (fire-proofing) towards the gate, which was not protected, was insulated on the outside with 250 mm rock wool with a thermal transmittance of 0.039 W/mK. This resulted in a U-value of 0.15 W/m2K.

Adding insulation to the inside of the contruction is a conservation compatible solution since is does not change the appearance of the building facade.

U-Wert (vor Sanierung) [W/m2K]: 1,4 W/m²K U-Wert (nach Sanierung) [W/m2K]: 0,4 W/m²K
Mehr Details
Aufbau Bestandswand
Brick - 235-710 mm thick brick wall:
710 mm
Aufbau sanierte Wand
Brick - 235-710 mm thick brick wall:
710mm
Insulation - Aerowolle:
40 mm
Other - Gypsum:
13 mm


Fenster

Facade windows

Facade windows

The original windows were wooden frames with 1 pane of glass and a U-value of 4.20 W/m2K, however some of the original windows had had a layer of glass added on the inside to improve energy aspects and reduce draught. The new windows had 1 + 2 panes of glass. The 2-pane section has krypton gas filling and the total U-value of the windows is 0.89 W/m2K.

Due to the building's status as conservation-worthy, the renovation could not change the facade expression. However, the municipality accepted that the windows were replaced with new windows that were constructed like the old windows. The new windows were specially developed for the project with drawn glass in the outer layer of the pane to give the window the same expression and mirroring quality as the original ones from 1896. The new windows that were installed are wooden windows with switched frames 1 + 2 from Frovin Vinduer and Døre A/S.

Bestandsfenster U-Wert Glas [W/m2K]: 5,9 Neues Fenster U-Wert Glas [W/m2K]: 0,8 Bestandsfenster U-Wert Rahmen [W/m2K]: 1,6 Neues Fenster U-Wert Rahmen [W/m2K]: 1,6
Mehr Details
Fenstertyp Bestand Double window
Verglasungsart Bestand Single
Verschattung Bestand NA
Ungefähres Einbaujahr 1896
Neuer Fenstertyp Double window
Verglasungsart des neuen Fensters Triple
Verschattung des neuen Fensters NA
Neuer Energiedurchlassgrad g [-] 0,5

Weitere Maßnahmen

DACH

DACH

Part of the renovation included adding new roof apartments to the top pf the building and thereby a whole new roof was added. Before the renovation the roof had a U-value of 0.52 W/m2K and after the renovation the new roof has a U-value of 0.21 W/m2K.

The roof was not part of the protected facade and therefore no restrictions were present. New roof terraces and PV panels are not visible from the street below.

U-Wert (vor Sanierung) [W/m2K] 0,52 U-Wert (nach Sanierung) [W/m2K] 0,15
Mehr Details
Aufbau Bestandsdach
Slate - Original roof with low degree of insulation:
12 mm
Other - Wood:
50 mm
Aufbau saniertes Dach
Metal sheets - Metal sheeting :
2 mm
Other - Insulation:
200 mm

HVAC

LÜFTUNG

LÜFTUNG

Before the renovation the building had natural ventilation through open windows and leaks in the thermal envelope. Original ventilation shafts in toilets/bathrooms and kitchens were either blocked or did not work as intended. The renovation included three different types of mechanical ventilation, one for each entrance/stairwell (A, B and C). The purpose was to test different solutions in order for future projects to have a better understanding of which solutions would fit where. Stairwell A: Traditional central mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Stairwell B: Central demand controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Stairwell C: Decentral mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. See documentation for further details.

All ducts and ventilation units are integrated and does not alter the parts of the building that needed preservation and therefore the solution is 100% conservation compatible.

Mehr Details
Aufbau Bestandsdach Neues Lüftungssystem
Lüftungstyp Centralized
Type flow regime Cascade
Wärmerückgewinnung Ja
Feuchterückgewinnung Nein
Nennleistung 1,5 kW
Elektrische Leistung 1,0 kW
Regelung Supply constant air flow of 140 m3/h. Exhaust air volumen depends on humidity levels and whether the cooker hood is in use.

ERNEUERBARE ENERGIE

Photovoltaik

Photovoltaik

80 m2 photovoltaics were added to the roof. The producer has calculated the expected production to 8,950 kWh per year and during the first year after renovation the system produced 11,000 kWh. The electricity production should cover most of the electricity used for mechanical ventilation in the apartments.

The photovoltaic system is placed on the roof and therefore did not influence the protected facade of the building.

The photovoltaic panels are placed on the roof (not integrated), but on a part of the roof that is not visible from the street.

Mehr Details
Photovoltaic System
Type Monocrystaline
Collector area 80,0 m²
Total nominal power 10,0 kW
Elevation angle 30,0
Azimuth 135,0
Overall yearly production 8950,0 kWh
Heating contribuition 0,0 kW
DHW contribuition 0,0 kW
Cooling contribuition 0,0 kW
Lighting contribuition 0,0 kW

Energieeffizienz

Energieeffizienz
Energieausweis Nein
Freiwillige Zertifikate Nein
Energievrabrauch
Heizung
Berechnungsmethode Steady state simulation (e.g. EPC, PHPP)
Energieverbrauch vor Sanierung 152 kWh/m2.y
Energieverbrauch nach Sanierung 56 kWh/m2.y

Primärenergie
Berechnungsmethode NA
Energieverbrauch incl Brauchwarmwasser Nein
Gemessene Parameter
Raumklima
Type_of_monitoring: Punctual
Description: The heating consumption (space heating and domestic hot water) was measured before and after the renovation. Before the renovation the consumption was 155 kWh/m2 per year and after the renovation it was 83 kWh/m2 per year. Compared to calculations the measured consumption matches well for the before-situation but not for the after-situation. This was primarily due to the fact that tenants had a higher indoor temperature than assumed (22-23 C instead of 20 C) and that the efficiency of the heat recovery in ventilation systems was lower than expected. This also means that instead of heating energy savings of 63% the actual savings are around 53% - this is due to the so-called "rebound effect" where tenants "invest" some of the energy savings in an improvement of the indoor climate.

Raumklima

Temperatur

NA

Indoor Air Quality

NA

Daylight

NA

akustischer Komfort

NA

Erhaltung von Ausstellungsstücken

NA

Kosten

Finanzielle Aspekte

NA

Betriebskosten
Lifecycle cost
Nein

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