Villa Castelli

Via Loreti 4

23822

Bellano (LC),

Contact Details

Dagmar Exner
EURAC research
dagmar.exner@eurac.edu
+39 348 0424885

Owner

Arch. Valentina Carì
Via Loreti 4, 23822 Bellano (LC), Italy
tiacari000@gmail.com
+39 0341 821602 or +39 348 0410668

User

Arch. Valentina Carì
Via Loreti 4, 23822 Bellano (LC), Italy
tiacari000@gmail.com
+39 0341821602
Villa Castelli is a listed building from the 19th century located at the riverside of Lake Como (Italy). The owners set the ambitious goal of renovating the Villa, which had belonged to the family for about 140 years, to the lowest possible energy demand while maintaining the original use of the rooms and the external appearance. The renovation achieved a 90% energy demand reduction and a significant increase in comfort, demonstrating that also a listed building can become nZEB.
Energy performance
18,27 kWh/m2.y

Climate Zone Cfb

HDD 1453

CDD 99

Protection level Listed

Conservation Area:
Ja

Level of Protection:
Building worth preserving (vincolo architettonico) and situated in a protected area (vincolo paesaggistico).

Building age 1850-1899

Year of last renovation :
2013

Year of previous renovation:
1939

Building use Residential (rural)

Secondary use:
Residential (rural)

Building occupancy :
Permanently occupied

Number of occupants/users:
4

Building area Net floor area [m²]: 564,0

Building typology :
Detached house

Number of floors :
3

Basement yes/no:
Nein

Number of heated floors :
3

Gross floor area [m²] :
680,0

Thermal envelope area [m²]:
1269,91

Volume [m³] :
2606,24

NFA calculation method :
Useful area (it)

Construction type
Stone masonry wall

External finish :
Rendered

Internal finish:
Plastered (on hard)

Roof type:
Pitched roof

+ MORE - LESS
Villa Castelli after retrofit: dining room, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: kitchen, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: entrance and staircase, ground floor, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: corridor, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: exterior view, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: living room, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: exterior view, © Valentina Carì
Villa Castelli after retrofit: dining room, © Valentina Carì
, © Valentina Carì
, © Valentina Carì
, © Valentina Carì

RENOVATION PROCESS

Architecture

BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Villa Castelli dates back to the middle of the 19th century and has been rebuilt and extended several times during its existence: After a first enlargement on ground floor, in 1925 also the first floor was extended and the former inner courtyard was closed and integrated into the building. Also the façade, in its present form, was essentially rebuilt in 1925. Its substantial renovation with etched plaster lent the building its coherent architectural appearance. The complete architectural shape of the building was made consistent, by changing the old large windows on ground floor into new slimmer and thinner windows, using recurring architectural elements, colourful frames, pillared balustrades, façade decorations with plaster treated with “sgraffito” technique, which gives the facades its peculiar characteristic. A last relevant enlargement occurred in 1939, when the family occupied the building for the first time throughout the year during the war, the veranda was added, which served as a large dining room, and the heating system was installed with radiators probably powered by some stoves. In the following years, only heating system generators and furniture were changed. Depending on the construction period, the building was built with different construction methods and materials. The oldest load-bearing walls of the building are made of local natural stone (thickness 42 cm and 62 cm), the first extension was built in solid brick walls - the following in perforated bricks and partly concrete. Also the ceilings had different architectural characteristics according to their construction period: Those, dated back to the late 19th century, are wooden made with dry floor covering. Other ceiling constructions were steel structured ceilings with brick filler or steel beams with concrete slab, like above the veranda. The roof had a primary (purlins) and secondary (rafters) supporting wooden structure with shuttering and monk-and-nun roof tiles laying directly on it.

HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE

ELEMENTS WORTHY OF PRESERVATION
Facades: The facades in its present form dates back to the renovation of 1925. There were in quite good condition before the retrofit. The input requirement of the heritage authority with regard the facades was clearly to preserve both the external appearance of the facades and the original materials and structures. Room layout: The refurbishment project did not foresee changings of the original intended use of the historic room layout as a form of respect towards the history of the landlord´s family, who has owned and used the building for a long time. Therefore, the position of the main elements and room functions like e. g. the kitchen, the stair case and the entrances has not been changed. The changing of room functions that have been foreseen were simply to correct the defects of the existing room distribution, because the building is the result of several successive enlargements and that it was not born as one uniform architectonical element. Decorative elements (inside): The interventions foresaw also the repositioning of all decorative interior elements such as doors, window frames, chimneys etc. This with the aim to bring back the building to the original appearance it had in the decades immediately after the Second World War. This decision, to preserve some of the architectural elements of the interiors, was primarily the wish of the building owners - for example, the “window furniture”, an ornate wooden construction framing the window with shading elements that can be folded into the door reveal.
Heritage Value Assesment
The villa is under formal protection in two respects: the building is listed in the land-use plan as a building worth preserving (vincolo architettonico) and as part of the riverside landscape, it is situated in a protected area (vincolo paesaggistico) according to article 136 and 142 (ex Galasso). Here Valentina Carì will add more information... (In general there was no detailed assessment prior to the retrofit planning and no description of possible retrofit interventions from heritage office side. The only document the building owner had, was a vague description that all vertical structures and ceilings had to be maintained and that no intervention from outside was possible. During the planning phase the planning team searched for a direct contact and exchange with the heritage office. Usually the process for developing heritage compatible retrofit solutions was that the planning team was proposing a solution to the heritage office and in case they declined, the planning team proposed a new solution (often several times) until it was approved.)

State of repair

Conditions of the envelope
Overall, the building was in a good condition and regularly inhabited as summer residence during the warm season in the last decades. From static point of view, there were some beams of the wooden baseplate in a worse condition, since the “vespaio”, an under-floor cavity was not ventilated sufficiently, so that the beams remained humid because of moisture from the subsoil. Furthermore, there were some cracks in the facade due to ground sinking – a consequence of poor rainwater drainage in the city. The structural engineer's survey showed a clear need for consolidation measures, which had to be integrated with the energy-saving measures. The plasters on the facade were in good overall condition, but in some places - especially on the north-east and north-west facades of the building - they showed powdered debris, in some cases also larger defects and color washes. Defective gutters but also rising damp have led to typical moisture damage in various areas.
Description of pre-intervention building services
The existing heating system, which had been implemented during the last extension of the building, consisted of an oil burner that produced heat for the radiators and the hot water. The historic heating system consisted of stoves in stoneware in different zones of the building, to heat the single rooms. Because of large rooms and poor performance of the building envelope, it was impossible to warm up the rooms during winter in a sufficient way. Thus, the building was rarely used in winter before renovation, as the room temperature did not exceed 17°C despite installed powerful heating.

Aim of retrofit

Renovation
The general main aim of the renovation was to make the building more usable for the owner family - with a long-term perspective. It was not a matter of smaller measures that improve the comfort a little, but of minimizing the operating costs with a well thought-out comprehensive intervention, optimizing the comfort and usability of the rooms and preserving the charm of the historic building at the same time. The architectural concept followed the path of preserving the existing spatial functions and additionally connecting the often contradictory step-by-step extensions of the rooms of the original building. In addition, structural problems of the building was part of the renovation, some weak points e.g. cracks in the facade had to be analyzed and resolved. The ambitious target for energy efficiency were clearly defined with the client as follows at the beginning of the planning phase: (i) Overall refurbishment acting on the entire building and its building services with a focus on energy efficiency; (ii) minimize the energy demand of the entire building; (iii) cover the remaining energy demand with renewable sources and on site; (iiii) energy autonomy on an annual basis; (iiiii) use of natural materials and a clearly defined budget. The investment focused on the energy measures, but also on the restoration of the decorative elements inside and outside. The owners also accepted longer payback periods, but they had a keen eye on both the renovation and future operating costs, and emphasized the optimal use of the materials and technologies available today.
Was there any change of use?
During the ownership of the Castelli family the last 140 years, the building had always been used as a residential building, mainly as summer residence. With the holistic renovation it is now possible for the building owner to fully use the building and live in it all year round. Before and after the energetic renovation, the building comprised one apartment.
Lessons learned
Lessons learned from project planner view: 1. Check material costs early during the planning phase it was thought to insulate the whole building with Aerogel, an innovative insulation technology. A lot of planning effort was already done foreseeing Aerogel (hygrothermal simulation of construction details) as interior insulation, when the real purchasing price turned to be much higher than estimated, thus the project team had to opt for a . It is therefor crucial especially when working with new materials to check early the material costs, before doing double planning work. 2. Foresee in a remote connection to the building services from energy planner point of view it would have sense to be able to supervise the energy fluxes from outside, also in order to interpret the real consumption and to compare it with the calculated energy demand. 3. Convince building owner/material producer to invest in a monitoring system a monitoring system in Villa Castelli was not realized because of the lack of an investor. A insulation producer could not be convinced. According to the energy planner, it would be good, to have a minimum low-cost monitoring system.
Stakeholders Involvement
Research Development
EURAC research, Institute of renewable energies, research group: retrofit of historic buildings
Via A. Volta 13/A, 39100 Bolzano (BZ), Italy
alexandra.troi@eurac.edu
Tel.+39 0471 055602
Architect
Valentina Carì
Via Loreti 4, 23822 Bellano (LC), Italy
tiacari000@gmail.com
Tel.+39 0341821602
Conservation Consultant
x
x
Energy Consultant
Oscar Stuffer "Solarraum - architecture, energy, mobility"
Via Goethe 3, 39100 Bolzano (BZ), Italy
info@solarraum.it
Tel.+39 0471 707064
Structural Engineer
Vincenzo Buizza “Studio di Ingegneria Tecnica"
Corso Martiri della Liberazione, 6 23900 Lecco LC
vb@ingbuizza.it
Tel.0341 363915
Tools used
Was the renovation process done following a specific methodology? Nein
Energy calculation Energy calculation tool of regional energy certification of South Tyrol (ProCasaclima 3.2)
Hygrothermal assessment WUFI, Delphin

RETROFIT SOLUTIONS

External Walls

Exterior wall in natural stones + perlite insulation (type 1)

Concrete wall + aerogel insulation (type 2)

Wall in solid brick + perlite insulation (type 3)

Exterior wall in natural stones + perlite insulation (type 1)

The exterior wall in local natural stone masonry with lime mortar was insulated from inside with 20 cm perlite, applying on the existing lime plaster layer another layer of lime plaster as leveling layer, the glue, the perlite insulation panel and the interior plaster. For the wall construction with internal insulation the moisture transport was simulated (WUFI). In addition, all nodes were designed and planned in detail with special attention to air tightness, vapor diffusion and convection.

The appearance of the facades should not be changed from conservator´s point of view. This constraint, in addition to the beauty of the exterior surfaces, which were still very well preserved, were the base of the decision for an insulation on the inner surfaces of the exterior walls. In this way, although being aware of the difficulty to avoid thermal bridges, a conservation compatible solution for the opaque parts could be found, as the internal insulation did not alter the exterior building appearance.

U-value (pre-intervention) [W/m2K]: 1,33 W/m²K U-value (post-intervention) [W/m2K]: 0,19 W/m²K
More Details
Original wall build-up
Plaster :
40 mm
Stone :
410 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Retrofitted wall build-up
Plaster :
40mm
Stone - Glue:
410 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Plaster - strato di lisciatura, intonaco in calce:
30 mm
Other - Glue:
10 mm
Insulation :
200 mm
Plaster :
10 mm
Concrete wall + aerogel insulation (type 2)

Where it was geometrically not possible to install the 20 cm thick perlite insulation layer, 8 cm of Aerogel were applied as internal insulation (e.g. to the concrete wall of the staircase). The internal insulation of the exterior walls has followed the criteria to standardize the thicknesses of the insulation layers. A difference has been made in the area e. g. of the veranda in order to not alter the very thin architectural shape: while the majority of the walls the insulation is of 20 cm perlite, in the area of the veranda, it was planned to cover the pillars of reinforced concrete with a high-performance material with reduced thickness, such as aerogel.

x

U-value (pre-intervention) [W/m2K]: 2,47 W/m²K U-value (post-intervention) [W/m2K]: 0,18 W/m²K
More Details
Original wall build-up
Plaster :
40 mm
Concrete :
310 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Retrofitted wall build-up
Plaster :
40mm
Concrete - Glue:
310 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Plaster :
30 mm
Other - Glue:
10 mm
Insulation :
80 mm
Plaster :
10 mm
Wall in solid brick + perlite insulation (type 3)

Also those parts of the exterior wall in solid brick stone masonry was insulated from inside with 20 cm perlite, applying on the existing lime plaster layer another layer of lime plaster as leveling layer, the glue, the perlite insulation panel and the interior plaster.

x

U-value (pre-intervention) [W/m2K]: 1,4 W/m²K U-value (post-intervention) [W/m2K]: 0,19 W/m²K
More Details
Original wall build-up
Plaster :
40 mm
Brick :
310 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Retrofitted wall build-up
Plaster :
40mm
Brick - Glue:
310 mm
Plaster :
40 mm
Plaster :
30 mm
Other - Glue:
10 mm
Insulation :
200 mm
Plaster :
10 mm


Windows

All windows

All windows

The windows and doors have been substituted with high energy performance system. Triple glazing filled with Argon, casing in a wood-aluminum frame, reduce the thermal losses through the windows system. Thanks to the low solar heat gain coefficient of the glazing system, the solar radiation can be controlled during the summer period, guaranteeing a high indoor comfort for the users.

The original windows were not of heritage value from conservators point of view and could be replaced with a new energy-efficient window. The new windows were handmade by a carpentry as wood-aluminium windows. Input requirement of the heritage authority was to maintain the original layout of the windows (so the number of sashes - in case e.g. of the veranda windows 4 sashes), while the original proportions (relation glazing-wood/frame thickness) was not considered. The interventions foresaw the renovation and repositioning of the original decorated interior doors and window frames with the aim to assure the original building appearance it had and craftsmanship. In particular, the “window furniture”, an ornate wooden construction framing the window with shading elements that can be folded into the door reveal.

Existing window U-value Glass [W/m2K]: 4,6 New window U-value Glass[W/m2K]: 1,1
More Details
Existing window type Casement window
Existing glazing type Single
Existing shading type Outer shutter
Approximate installation year 1925
New window type Casement window
New glazing type Triple
New shading type Outer shutter
New window solar factor g [-] 0,58

Other interventions

ROOF

GROUND FLOOR

OTHER

MEASURES TO INCREASE AIRTIGHTNESS

ROOF

The roof has been completely replaced with a new structure in laminated wood, with a package of insulation of 32 cm, consisting of 18 cm cellulose fiber between the rafters, 8 cm of wood fiber boards and 6 cm rock wool (fire protection under the photovoltaic system) on the rafters. In the course of renovation, also the roofing, originally roof tiles "monk and nun", was replaced with a metal roof in aluminum. The roof skin, double-crimped aluminum sheets hosts a mono-crystalline photovoltaic plant (see also RES).

x

U-value (pre-intervention) [W/m2K] 2,23 U-value (post-intervention) [W/m2K] 0,13
More Details
Original roof build-up
Other - Wood:
40 mm
Retrofitted roof build-up
Other - Rock wool (HARDROCK NRG):
60 mm
Other - Wood fibre board (Pavatherm):
80 mm
Other - Wood planking:
20 mm
Other - Insulation between rafters (Pavafloc)/rafters:
180 mm
Other - OSB panel:
18 mm
Other - Vapour barrier (variable); (Ampatex Resano):
1 mm
Other - Gypsum plaster board:
12 mm
GROUND FLOOR

The insulation of the floor slab against ground was carried out with 20 cm XPS lying on a 15 cm thick layer of lean concrete. Above the insulation layer, the installation level is located in a light, fast-drying subfloor (Lecacem) of 12 cm on which the floor heating system with expanded polystyrene (ISODOMUS) and the parquet are posed.

x

U-value (pre-intervention) [W/m2K] 1.49 U-value (post-intervention) [W/m2K] 0.15
More Details
Original groundfloor build-up
Other - Parquet:
15 mm
Other - Substructure in wooden slats:
40 mm
Retrofitted groundfloor build-up
Other - Parquet/decorative concrete:
15 mm
Other - Floor heating system with expanded polystyrene (ISODOMUS):
75 mm
Other - PFU membrane:
1 mm
Other - Light fast-drying subfloor (Lecacem) + installation:
120 mm
Insulation :
200 mm
Other - Bituminous membrane:
1 mm
Other - Lean concrete:
150 mm
OTHER

Restauration: The façade has been completely restored according to the input requirements of the heritage authority: cleaned, consolidated (acrylic resin with brush and syringe), missing parts supplemented in original technique. For a perfect function of the internal insulation special care was taken to close all joints and cracks. Sealing: The exterior walls have been sealed, injecting at high pressure a micro emulsion of concentrated silicones into regular drilled holes at a height of about 0,5 m above the interior floor level. The horizontal sealing of the baseplate was then pulled up on the interior sides to the level of horizontal cut in the exterior walls. Static consolidation: In order to consolidate the building statically, in certain areas the existing ceilings were removed and replaced by timber-concrete composite slabs, which distribute the loads better and reinforce the building itself. Detail planning/hygrothermal simulation: Based on the holistic pre-intervention survey, the individual components and junctions were analyzed and solutions were developed within an integrated design process, which included energy efficiency as well as thermal bridges, the correct humidity behavior, architectural aspects and static specifications (earthquake resistance!). The critical points in the design planning as well as in the execution of the construction work were certainly the high number of different nodes (about 30 pcs.). To simplify the design as much as possible, the planning was limited to two internal insulation thicknesses (20 cm perlite and 8 cm aerogel, where geometrically required). The moisture transport in the wall construction was simulated for both interior insulations (with WUFI). In addition, all knots were planned in detail and with special attention to airtightness, vapour diffusion and convection.

x

MEASURES TO INCREASE AIRTIGHTNESS

An airtight building envelope was important in two respects: firstly, to ensure that the interior insulation was not damaged in the long term and secondly to limit ventilation losses in view of the location exposed to the wind. The installation of a comfort ventilation system ensures optimum air hygiene (primarily CO2 concentration, but also room humidity). Particularly when using internal insulation, a continuous layer airtightness layer all around the building envelope is crucial in order to avoid condensation of warm room air behind the internal insulation or in construction nodes. In case of the external wall, the internal plaster forms the airtight layer, whereas on the underside of the roof the vapor barrier under the internal gypsum plasterboard and on the baseplate a foil under the subfloor on the XPS insulation forms the airtightness layer. In all points where this continuous air-tightness layer is interrupted/penetrated, e.g. by ceiling beams, detailed solutions were be sought individually to guarantee air-tightness.

U-value (pre-intervention) [ach@50Pa] 3 U-value (post-intervention) [ach@50Pa] 0.41

HVAC

HEATING

DOMESTIC HOT WATER

VENTILATION

AIR CONDITIONING

HEATING

A heat pump with a geothermal plant (probes) supplies the production of heating and cooling and hot water. The heat for heating is distributed to the rooms through a radiant floor system.

More Details
New primary heating system New secondary heating system
New system type Heat pump
Fuel Electricity
Distribuition system Radiating floor
Nominal power 14 kW
VENTILATION

A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed. It guarantees a pollen-free, healthy indoor environment and improve the comfort indoor for the users. It controls the air humidity in the rooms, given that the building is lying in a zone closed to the lake. A set of CO2 sensors regulates automatically the air exchanges and the heat exchanger allows a further reduction of the building energy demands. The mechanical ventilation system is centralized at each floor, in order to guarantee the independency of each flat. Thus, three centralized comfort ventilation units with 480m³/h per unit and a heat recovery of 87% (according to the passive house certificate) were installed.

More Details
Original roof build-up New ventilation system
Type ventilation system Centralized
Type flow regime
Heat recovery Ja
Humitidy recovery Nein
Nominal power
Electric power
Control system CO2 sensors
AIR CONDITIONING

The heat pump also supplies the air conditioning. It must be emphasized that the specific power of cooling is very low (soft cooling) in order to avoid condensation in the floor structure.

More Details
New cooling system
Type Heat pump
Distribuition system Radiating floor
Nominal power 14 kW
Electric power
DOMESTIC HOT WATER

The heat pump with a geothermal plant (probes) generates also domestic hot water production. The hot water is stored in a 900 l buffer tank.

More Details
New DHW system
Type with heating system
Hot_water_tank Ja
With heat recovery Nein

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

Photovoltaic

WindEnergy

Geothermal

Photovoltaic

The remaining energy demand had to be covered locally and in a renewable way. Electrical energy is produced with a PV-system, integrated in the roofing and not visible from outside. Before the heritage authorities approved the PV system, several prototypes were developed for a roof-integrated and preferably invisible installation. The heritage authorities opted for the double-curled aluminum sheet covering of the roof - which is quite common for buildings of this age in a similar way - with integrated mono-crystalline PV modules, folded plates with integrated photovoltaic cells, of about 11 kWp. A sailboat outfitter supplied the extra-thin PV modules.

The heritage office in charge of the project has evaluated as fundamental criteria: (i) the aesthetic characteristics of the panels (color and surface finish); (ii) their geometric arrangement in relation to the shape of the roof surface and the orientation of the building (shape of the plant, modularity); (iii) the adherence and coplanarity to the roofing; (iv) the non-reflective surfaces; (v) the perceptibility from around, with particular reference to the road, lake and circus-standing landscape level. The design of the panel respects the triangular or trapezoidal shape of the roof surface, trying to promote as much as possible the perception of a homogeneous coating of the entire surface. All the panels have the same orientation, consistent with the general orientation of the building, in order to minimize their perceptibility from around.

More Details
Photovoltaic System
Type Monocrystaline
Collector area
Total nominal power 11,0
Elevation angle
Azimuth
Overall yearly production 0,0
Heating contribuition
DHW contribuition
Cooling contribuition
Lighting contribuition
WindEnergy

Also micro wind turbines installed on the roof contribute to the production of electricity.

More Details
WindEnergy
Type
Position in relation to building
Total_nominal_power
Overall_yearly_production
Geothermal

The brine-water heat pump (see also heating section) use geothermal energy to generate energy via three deep probes with 80 m each.

More Details
Biomass System
Type
Exchange area
Overall yearly production

Energieeffizienz

Energy Performance

Energy performance certificate: The retrofit of Villa Castelli met the criteria of the ClimaHouse R certification (Klimahaus R/Climate House R), an energy label especially for the retrofit of historic buildings. https://www.agenziacasaclima.it/it/villa-castelli--16-6523.html Technical guideline: Agenzia per l´Energia Alto Adige – CasaClima, Agentur für Energie Südtirol – Klimahaus: “Technische Richtlinie Bestandsgebäude & Sanierung“, September 2017.
Voluntary certificates: Nein

Energy Use

Heating
Documents: EURAC_Villa Castelli_Energy calculation_after retrofit.pdf EURAC_Villa Castelli_Energy calculation_before retrofit.pdf
Consumption_estimation_Before: 230,19 kWh/m2.y
Consumption_estimation_After: 18,27 kWh/m2.y

Primary Energy
Consumption_estimation_Calculation_method: Steady state simulation (e.g. EPC, PHPP)
Documents: EURAC_Villa Castelli_Energy calculation_after retrofit_1.pdf
Consumption_estimation_After: 32,4 kWh/m2.y

Measured Parameters

Internal Climate
Type_of_monitoring: NA

External Climate
Type_of_monitoring: NA

Construction
Type_of_monitoring: NA

UserBehavior
Type_of_monitoring: NA

Raumklima

Temperature

General comment of the building owner with regard comfort and costs: “Expenses of 3.800,00 € per year only for heating and hot water, in addition often the use of 2 fireplaces, nevertheless a temperature of 17.7 ° C was never exceeded. On days after there was strong wind from the north, we had to put on a jacket in the house. A very particular experience. The kitchen was supplied with gas. After the first year in the renovated house, from February 2015 to February 2016, with the first months of increased consumption (cold house and doors that were constantly opened to complete the construction work), we spent 2.400,00 euros on electricity (all'inclusive!). We are satisfied with that. For 680 m² in a super-comfortable house (20 °C and controlled CO₂ content), with external hydromassage and Turkish steam bath (which also consume electricity). In the second year, we expect to spend even less.”

Post Occupancy Evaluation

POE-Report was created

Kosten

Financial Aspects

In total, the costs for the renovation of the three-storey villa amounted to € 1.5 million - at around € 2,200/m² gross floor area; this corresponds roughly to the new construction costs for a building of the same quality standard in this region. However, the clients receive a clear benefit compared to the new building: a villa with modern living comfort and historical charm in the Park am See. The masonry works and the interior finishing accounted for a considerable part of the costs. The work included on the one hand the static consolidation and on the other hand internal work to change the room layout according to the client's wishes. The plant technology also had a major impact, as the entire heat generation and distribution as well as the sanitary technology were renewed.

Investment Costs

Total investment costs
2.200,00 Euro/m² (per m2)
Amount includes: The total costs include project planning costs, interior construction and masonry work, refurbishment and renovation, thermal insulation, windows and shading, roof, building services, furniture and other.

Cost of energy related interventions:
570,00 Euro/m² (per m2)
Amount includes: The costs for the energetic renovation amounted to total 388.000,00 Euro, around 570 €/m² (gross floor area), about 26 % of the total costs. They include a part of the project planning costs, all thermal insulation measures (including work), the new windows and the energy efficiency components of the system technology (ventilation system, geothermal system, heat pump and PV system).

Running Costs

Total annual energy cost
Winter 2016/2017: 1.800,00 Euro (total energy costs including lighting) (total)

Lifecycle cost
Nein

Umgebung

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Life Cycle Analysis

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