Basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio

Piazzale di Collemaggio, 5

67100

L'Aquila, Italie


Contact Details

Fabrizio Leonforte
Politecnico di Milano
fabrizio.leonforte@polimi.it

Other Information

Visits
Public building

Related publications
3
View of the facade
The Basilica di S. Maria di Collemaggio, L’Aquila, is a masterpiece of Abruzzese Romanesque and Gothic architecture and a very important religious site for the original Papal Jubilee devised by Pope Celestine V, who is buried there. The main challenge was to design a heating system comprehensive of its connections and pipes without interfering in the original appearance of the church, able at the same time to preserve the cultural heritage of the Basilica. The restoration of the Basilica was financially supported by ENI.
Energy performance
6700 kWh/y

Climate Zone Cfb

Altitude 714

HDD 2514

CDD 255

Protection level Listed

Conservation Area:
Oui

Level of Protection:
National monument

Building age before 1600

Year of last renovation:
2017

Year of previous renovation:
2015

Building use Religious

Building occupancy:
Discontinuous occupancy (i.e. holiday home)

Number of occupants/users:
500

Building area Net floor area [m²]: 2140,5

Building typology:
Church

Number of floors:
1

Basement yes/no:
No

Number of heated floors:
1

Gross floor area [m²]:
2488,9

Volume [m³]:
34800,0

NFA calculation method:
Useful area (it)

Construction type
Stone masonry wall

External finish:
Exposed stonework

Internal finish:
Plastered (on hard)

Roof type:
Pitched roof

+ MORE - LESS
View of the facade
View of the facade
Interior view of the church
Interior view of the church
Interior
Interior

RENOVATION PROCESS

Architecture

BUILDING DESCRIPTION

The Basilica di S. Maria di Collemaggio, L’Aquila, is a master-piece of Abruzzese Romanesque and Gothic architecture and a very important religious site for the original Papal Jubilee devised by Pope Celestine V, who is buried there. The church is famous for its pink and white stone facade; the interior includes a nave and two side aisles, each one divided from it by a row of columns. The austere character of the interior is due mainly to restoration works completed in 1972, which aimed at restoring the mediaeval appearance that had been changed by the baroque reconstruction after the 1703 earthquake.
Urban context
The Basilica di Collemaggio is located outide the walls of the city, surrounded by a residential area; it is close to a green famous area in the city: Parco del sole. It is also near to a car park and bus terminal parking and to the hospital.

HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE

ELEMENTS WORTHY OF PRESERVATION
It was worth preserving paintings on the right aisle, particularly the Madonna con le sante Agnese e Apollonia, the Assunzione ed incoronazione della Vergine and the Crocefissione, all dating back to the 15th century. Along the left aisle there is the pictorial cycle “Storie della vita di papa Celestino V”. In the right apse there is the mausoleum of Pope Celestine; the church choir’s columns and capitals are particurlary precoius as the baroque marble altar.
Heritage Value Assesment
Listed building - Monument

State of repair

Conditions of the envelope
The transept suffered the most damage in the 2009 earthquake, with the total collapse of the large multi-lobed pillars, the triumphal arch and the roofing. The earthquake caused also serious damage to the decorative stucco work, causing severe damage, cracks with the alarming displacement of floors, defective adhesion and hundreds of fragments found in the collapse area. The violent impact of the overwhelming amount of rubble which fell from the transept seriously damaged the entire area below it: more specifically, the floor sank in an area of about 70 square metres and was shattered in several places, the side altars were conspicuously disjointed and studded with damage, as were the floor slabs in the Celestini Abbots and the access balustrades to the chapels and presbytery.
Description of pre-intervention building services
Santa Maria di Collemaggio is a church that has always hosted religious functions.

Aim of retrofit

Renovation
The earthquake that struck L’Aquila on April 6th 2009 caused severe damages. The restoration project has been developed using advanced survey, modelling and design techniques, including laser scanning and HBIM. The works had to face many problems, one of them being the problem of heating, which is relevant also because of the local climate: L’Aquila is located at an elevation of m 720 among the mountains and is characterized by severe winters.
Stakeholders Involvement
Private Sector
Eni, oil and gas italian company, funded the renovation
-
Research Development
Niccolò Aste - Politecnico di Milano
-
niccolo.aste@polimi.it
Conservation Consultant
Stefano Della Torre - Politecnico di Milano
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano MI
stefano.dellatorre@polimi.it
Energy Consultant
Niccolò Aste - Politecnico di Milano
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano MI
niccolo.aste@polimi.it
Services Engineer
Niccolò Aste - Politecnico di Milano
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano MI
niccolo.aste@polimi.it
Tools used
Was the renovation process done following a specific methodology? No
Energy calculation Energy Plus
Hygrothermal assessment Ansys Fluent

RETROFIT SOLUTIONS



HVAC

HEATING

HEATING

High-efficiency hydronic pew-based heating system specifically designed for the Basilica di Collemaggio. In such system the heat transfer fluid (water) is heated by the generator, which is a water to water heat pump, and is distributed through small pipes to the benches and the heated footboards. The pews thus integrate hydronic radiant panels, specifically adapted for the purpose, placed in order to maximize the radiative surface and the related view factor in respect to seated people. The whole heating system was designed assuming an heat pump with a nominal power of 30 kW (brine input temperature of 0◦C and water output temperature at 40◦C) with a SCOP of the geothermal heat pump system equal to 4. It takes into account also electric consumption due to required auxiliaries. The geothermal heat exchanger are realized with 4 boreholes (150 m deep each) placed on the back of the Basilica. The entire system is turned on 1 h before each celebration at nominal power and to be switched off at the end of the event.

The effectiveness of the proposed heating system was simulated considering the whole church’s environment using CFD software. It shows that the increase in air temperature in the upper part of the church during the heating system operations is about 2.5◦C, and thus it does not cause abrupt or substantial changes in temperature. As already said, the main advantage of the local heating system is that the air in the church is not heated towards high temperatures,but that the heat is directly radiated to people. Whereas the air temperature around the benches only rises slightly (with a temperature of about 13◦C), the radiant temperature at the positions where the people are seatedreaches a level of 17◦C or higher. It can be considered an acceptable level for providing human thermal comfort, according to the results of the comfort analysis.

More Details
New primary heating system
New system type Heat pump
Fuel Electricity
Distribuition system Hydronic high-efficiency pew-based system
Nominal power 30 kW kW

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

Geothermal

Geothermal

The solution proposed is able to combine the advantages obtainable from electric benches with those of a hydronic heating system coupled with ground-source heat pumps, combining good local comfort levels to significant energy savings and low or no impact on the artworks and building structures.

Among the various solutions analyzed, this appears to be definitely the best, both in terms of comfort and artworks conservation, although the heat dispersed by Joule effect adversely affects the overall energy efficiency.

In detail, the radiant plates have been realized with extruded aluminium profiles, specifically adapted for the purpose. These elements are provided with internal ducts with circular section, in which the heat transfer fluid flows, and can directly be covered with a thin layer of wood as a finishing. The wooden structure of the bench is designed to fully integrate all the pipes and the joints, and is provided with different openings in order to ensure an easy access in case of maintenance. The hydraulic interconnection among different pews is realized with above-floor copper pipes hidden in a wooden channel.

More Details
Geothermal System
Type Vertical loop
Overall yearly production 30,0 kWh

Energy Efficiency

Energy Performance
Energy performance certificate: No
Voluntary certificates: No
Energy Use
Heating
Primary Energy 6700 kWh/y
Consumption_estimation_After: 6700 kWh/y

Primary Energy
Consumption_estimation_Calculation_method: Dynamic simulation (e.g. EnergyPlus)
Documents:
3.Church heating comparison of different strategies.pdf
Church heating comparison of different strategies

Consumption_estimation_Before: 410000 kWh/y
Consumption_estimation_After: 6700 kWh/y

Internal Climate

Temperature

As already said, the main advantage of the local heating system is that the air in the church is not heated towards high temperatures, but that the heat is directly radiated to people. Whereas the air temperature around the benches only rises slightly (with a temperature of about 13◦C), the radiant temperature at the positions where the people are seated reaches a level of 17◦C or higher. It can be considered an acceptable level for providing human thermal comfort.

Artifact Conservation

As previously introduced, pew-based heating is an interesting technical solution for local thermal comfort, thus also such solution was assessed for the analyzed case-study; recent research demonstrated that novel technical solutions integrating electric heating foils properly installed as under-seat, under-kneeler and hand-warmer elements can ensure optimal comfort level while minimizing the negative influence on the church and its artworks.

Costs

Financial Aspects

The feasible solutions for the Basilica di S, Maria di Collemaggio were analysed, including a novel pew-based hydronic system for local comfort. The obtained result in terms of global cost demonstrated that pew-based systems (electric or hydronic), which are the most suitable in terms of comfort and artworks preservation, achieve also the best cost-effectiveness on a reference period of 30 years.

Investment Costs
Total investment costs
104,000 € Total (60 pews) (total)
Amount includes: - Hydronic radiant plates with hydraulic 850 connections - Boreholes (4 units, ISO m. deep each) - Heat pump and water tank - Primary and secondary hydronic circuits, pumps and valves - Control and management system
Running Costs
Lifecycle cost
No

Lifecycle documents:
3.Church heating comparison of different strategies_3.pdf

Environment

Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Methodology_used: A comparison was carried out considering the specific yearly CO2emission of each solution, as reported in figure. The emission factors were considered 0.2 kg CO2/kWh for natural gas and 0.433 kg CO2/kWh for electricity, according to the ones actually adopted in Italy. It can be observed that the trend of the CO2 emissions follows approximately that of the energy consumption.
Documents:
Senza titolo-1.jpg
Comparison of the yearly CO2emissions of the different feasible heatingsolutions analyzed

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